Testing is crucial to the success of any software product in this competitive world. Manual tests play a pivotal role in software development and come in handy whenever you have a case where you cannot use automated tests. Hence, there is still a lot of demand for people with skills relevant to manual testing. This Manual Testing Interview Questions article is the perfect guide for you to master software testing.

### Metso Outotec Interview Rounds and Process

## VIBGYOR School,(TGT) E. City Phase 1 Interview Questions

### Q3 What is Defect Cascading in Software Testing?

Defect Cascading is the process of triggering other defects in the application. When a defect goes unnoticed while testing, it invokes other defects. As a result, multiple defects crop up in the later stages of development. If defect cascading continues to affect other features in the application, identifying the affected feature becomes challenging. You may make different test cases to solve this issue, even then it is difficult and time-consuming.

### 2 Write the equation and calculate the precision and recall rate.

Consider the same confusion matrix used in the previous question.

Precision = (True positive) / (True Positive + False Positive)

Recall Rate = (True Positive) / (Total Positive + False Negative)

## What Would You Hope to Accomplish in the First Few Months?

Here the interviewer is trying to suss out which candidate will hit the ground running. This question is intimidating, but also a truly excellent opportunity to show off all the research you’ve done about the role and company. That said, you obviously don’t know everything about the job, so your interviewer will also be interested in how you’d fill in those gaps in your knowledge.

### Why is R used in Data Visualization?

R is widely used in Data Visualizations for the following reasons-

### 1 How will you calculate eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the following 3×3 matrix?

-2 |
-4 |
2 |

-2 |
1 |
2 |

4 |
2 |
5 |

The characteristic equation is as shown:

Expanding determinant:

(-2 â Î») [(1-Î») (5-Î»)-2×2] + 4[(-2) x (5-Î») -4×2] + 2[(-2) x 2-4(1-Î»)] =0

– Î»3 + 4Î»2 + 27Î» â 90 = 0,

Î»3 – 4 Î»2 -27 Î» + 90 = 0

Here we have an algebraic equation built from the eigenvectors.

By hit and trial:

33 â 4 x 32 – 27 x 3 +90 = 0

Hence, (Î» – 3) is a factor:

Î»3 – 4 Î»2 – 27 Î» +90 = (Î» â 3) (Î»2 â Î» â 30)

Eigenvalues are 3,-5,6:

(Î» â 3) (Î»2 â Î» â 30) = (Î» â 3) (Î»+5) (Î»-6),

Calculate eigenvector for Î» = 3

-5 – 4Y + 2Z =0,

-2 – 2Y + 2Z =0

Subtracting the two equations:Â

Subtracting back into second equation:

Similarly, we can calculate the eigenvectors for -5 and 6.