Apipa Interview Questions

Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing is the full form of APIPA.The picture of Windows-based operating system including in Windows 98, ME, 2000 and XP that enables a computer to automatically assign itself an IP address when a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server is not available to perform that function. If APIPA detects the DHCP server on the network then it stops itself and the DHCP server replaces the other networking address with dynamically assign addresses.

APIPA is Automatic Private IP Addressing.WITH APIPA DHCP clients automatically configure an IP address and subnet mask when a DHCP server is not available. The device chooses its own IP address in the range through to The subnet mask is automatically set to and the gateway address is set to default, the APIPA protocol is enabled.

To access the Internet, one public IP address is needed, but we can use a private IP address on our private network. The idea of NAT is to allow multiple devices to access the Internet through a single public address. To achieve this, the translation of a private IP address to a public IP address is required. Network Address Translation (NAT) is a process in which one or more local IP addresses is translated into one or more Global IP addresses and vice versa in order to provide Internet access to the local hosts. Also, it does the translation of port numbers i.e. masks the port number of the host with another port number in the packet that will be routed to the destination. It then makes the corresponding entries of IP address and port number in the NAT table. NAT generally operates on a router or firewall. For more details, please refer to Network Address Translation.

Data connection: For sending the actual file, FTP makes use of a data connection. A data connection is initiated on port number 20. For more details, please refer to File Transfer Protocol (FTP) in the Application Layer article.

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) is a CISCO proprietary protocol, which provides redundancy for a local subnet. In HSRP, two or more routers give an illusion of a virtual router.

In DHCP, the client and the server exchange mainly 4 DHCP messages in order to make a connection. This process is known as DORA process (discovery, offer, request, and acknowledgment), but there are 8 DHCP messages in the process. For more details, please refer to Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) article.

14. If a class B network on the Internet has a subnet mask of, what is the maximum number of hosts per subnet? The binary representation of the subnet mask is 11111111.11111111.11111000. 00000000. There are 21 bits set in a subnet. So 11 (32-21) bits are left for host ids. The total possible value of host ids is 2^11 = 2048. Out of these 2048 values, 2 addresses are reserved. The address with all bits as 1 is reserved as broadcast address and the address with all host id bits as 0 is used as a network address of the subnet. In general, the number of addresses usable for addressing specific hosts in each network is always 2^N – 2 where N is the number of bits for host id. So the answer is 2046.

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APIPA Explained – Automatic Private IP Addressing

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