### 8 What are dataframes?

A dataframe refers to a two dimensional mutable data structure or data aligned in the tabular form with labeled axes(rows and column).

Syntax:

**data**:It refers to various forms like ndarray, series, map, lists, dict, constants and can take other DataFrame as Input.

**index**:This argument is optional as the index for row labels will be automatically taken care of by pandas library.

**columns**:This argument is optional as the index for column labels will be automatically taken care of by pandas library.

**Dtype**: refers to the data type of each column.

### 1 What are functions in Python?

A function is a block of code which is executed only when a call is made to the function. **def** keyword is used to define a particular function as shown below:

**Output:** Hi, Welcome to Intellipaat

### 7 What advantages do NumPy arrays offer over (nested) Python lists?

**Nested Lists**:

**Numpy**:

### 4 Differentiate between NumPy and SciPy?

NumPy |
SciPy |

NumPy stands for Numerical Python | SciPy stands for Scientific Python |

It is used for efficient and general numeric computations on numerical data saved in arrays. E.g., sorting, indexing, reshaping, and more | This module is a collection of tools in Python used to perform operations such as integration, differentiation, and more |

There are some linear algebraic functions available in this module, but they are not full-fledged | Full-fledged algebraic functions are available in SciPy for algebraic computations |

### 4 Explain the use of the ‘with’ statement and its syntax?

In Python, using the ‘with’ statement, we can open a file and close it as soon as the block of code, where ‘with’ is used, exits. In this way, we can opt for not using the close() method.

### 6 Can you write an efficient code to count the number of capital letters in a file?

The normal solution for this problem statement would be as follows:

with open(SOME_LARGE_FILE) as countletter:

To make this code more efficient, the whole code block can be converted into a one-liner code using the feature called generator expression. With this, the equivalent code line of the above code block would be as follows:

count sum(1 for line in countletter for character in line if character.isupper())

### 2 How can you randomize the items of a list in place in Python?

This can be easily achieved by using the **Shuffle()** function from the** random** library as shown below:

**Output**: [‘Loves’,’He’ ,’To ,’In’, ‘Python’,’Code’]

### 5 What does *args and **kwargs mean?

**Want to know about the real-world uses of Python? Read our detailed blog on Python Project ideas now.**